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5. What does it mean to register a trademark?

Although registration with the PTO is not required for a trademark to be protected, registration does confer a number of benefits to the registering party. 15 U.S.C. § 1051 . As described above, registration gives a party the right to use the mark nationwide, subject to the limitations noted above. Étoile Isabel Marant Embroidered ButtonUp Top Hard Wearing Shipping Discount Authentic uDG1oYOB
. Registration constitutes nationwide constructive notice to others that the trademark is owned by the party. Registration enables a party to bring an infringement suit in federal court. Stacey Slit Front Pants Alice amp; Olivia Very Cheap dPPgK
. Registration allows a party to potentially recover treble damages, attorneys fees, and other remedies. Finally, registered trademarks can, after five years, become "incontestable," at which point the exclusive right to use the mark is conclusively established. 15 U.S.C. § 1065.

Applications for registration are subject to approval by the PTO. The PTO may reject a registration on any number of grounds. 15 U.S.C. § 1052 . For example, the PTO will refuse to register generic marks or descriptive marks that have not attained secondary meaning. The PTO can also reject "immoral or scandalous" marks, certain geographic marks, marks that are primarily surnames, and marks that are likely to cause confusion with existing marks. As noted above, rejection of the mark does not necessarily mean that it is not entitled to trademark protection; it means only that the mark is not entitled to the additional benefits listed above. 15 U.S.C. § 1125.

Some states also have their own registration systems under state trademark law.

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The rights to a trademark can be lost through abandonment, improper licensing or assignment, or genericity. A trademark is abandoned when its use is discontinued with an intent not to resume its use. Such intent can be inferred from the circumstances. Moreover, non-use for three consecutive years is prima facie evidence of abandonment. The basic idea is that trademark law only protects marks that are being used, and parties are not entitled to warehouse potentially useful marks. So, for example, a recent case held that the Los Angeles Dodgers had abandoned rights to the Brooklyn Dodgers trademark Major League Baseball Properties, Inc. v. Sed Non Olet Denarius, Ltd., 817 F. Supp. 1103 (S.D.N.Y. 1993) .

Trademark rights can also be lost through improper licensing or assignment. Where the use of a trademark is licensed (for example, to a franchisee) without adequate quality control or supervision by the trademark owner, that trademark will be canceled. Similarly, where the rights to a trademark are assigned to another party in gross, without the corresponding sale of any assets, the trademark will be canceled. The rationale for these rules is that, under these situations, the trademark no longer serves its purpose of identifying the goods of a particular provider. Dawn Donut Co., Inc. v. Hart's Food Stores, Inc., 267 F.2d 358 (2d Cir. 1959) .

Call and return the result of a method of the proxy’s referent.

If proxy is a proxy whose referent is obj then the expression

will evaluate the expression

in the manager’s process.

The returned value will be a copy of the result of the call or a proxy to a new shared object – see documentation for the method_to_typeid argument of PANTS Casual pants su YOOXCOM Brooks Brothers Exclusive Online Clearance Store Outlet Clearance Cheap Very Cheap VgHN2PBw
.

If an exception is raised by the call, then is re-raised by Cheap Sale Wiki Shopping Online Equipment SemiSheer Silk ButtonUp Discounts For Sale kNrZYt12t
. If some other exception is raised in the manager’s process then this is converted into a RemoteError exception and is raised by _callmethod() .

Note in particular that an exception will be raised if methodname has not been exposed .

An example of the usage of _callmethod() :

Return a copy of the referent.

If the referent is unpicklable then this will raise an exception.

Return a representation of the proxy object.

Return the representation of the referent.

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A proxy object uses a weakref callback so that when it gets garbage collected it deregisters itself from the manager which owns its referent.

A shared object gets deleted from the manager process when there are no longer any proxies referring to it.

One can create a pool of processes which will carry out tasks submitted to it with the Pool class.

A process pool object which controls a pool of worker processes to which jobs can be submitted. It supports asynchronous results with timeouts and callbacks and has a parallel map implementation.

processes is the number of worker processes to use. If processes is None then the number returned by os.cpu_count() is used.

If initializer is not None then each worker process will call initializer(*initargs) when it starts.

maxtasksperchild is the number of tasks a worker process can complete before it will exit and be replaced with a fresh worker process, to enable unused resources to be freed. The default maxtasksperchild is None , which means worker processes will live as long as the pool.

context can be used to specify the context used for starting the worker processes. Usually a pool is created using the function multiprocessing.Pool() or the Pool() method of a context object. In both cases context is set appropriately.